As long as writing was seen merely as transcription, as it was by such pioneering linguists as Ferdinand de Saussure and Leonard Bloomfield earlier in the 20th century, its conceptual significance was seriously underestimated. Once writing was seen as providing a new medium for linguistic expression, its distinctness from speech was more clearly grasped. Scholars such as Milman Parry, Marshall McLuhanEric Havelock, Jack Goody, and Walter Ong were among the first to analyze the conceptual and social implications of using written as opposed to oral forms of communication.
See Article History Braille, universally accepted system of writing used by and for blind persons and consisting of a code of 63 characters, each made up of one to six raised dots arranged in a six-position matrix or cell. These Braille characters are embossed in lines on paper and read by passing the fingers lightly over the Topic writing.
Louis Braillewho was blinded at the age of three, invented the system in while a student at the Institution Nationale des Jeunes Aveugles National Institute for Blind ChildrenParis. His printing of normal letters in relief led others to devise simplified versions; but, with one exception, they are no longer in use.
The single exception is Moon typeinvented in by William Moon of Brighton, England, which partly retains the outlines of the Roman letters and is easily learned by those who have become blind in later life.
Books in this type are still in limited use by elderly people, particularly in Great Britain. When Louis Braille entered the school for the blind in Paris, inhe learned of a system of tangible writing using dots, invented in by Capt.
Charles Barbier, a French army officer.
It was called night writing and was intended for night-time battlefield communications. The system was first published in ; a more complete elaboration appeared in To aid in identifying the 63 different dot patterns, or characters, that are possible within the six-dot cell, Braille numbered the dot positions 1—2—3 downward on the left and 4—5—6 downward on the right.
The first 10 letters of the Latin alphabet —a through j—are formed with dots 1, 2, 4, and 5. When preceded by the numeric indicator dots 3, 4, 5, and 6these signs have number values.
The letters k through t are formed by adding dot 3 to the signs that represent a through j. Five of the remaining letters of the alphabet and five very common words are formed by adding dots 3 and 6 to the signs representing a through j.
When dot 6 is added to the first 10 letters, the letter w and 9 common letter combinations are formed. Punctuation marks and two additional common letter combinations are made by placing the signs that represent letters a through j in dot positions 2, 3, 5, and 6.
Three final letter combinations as well as the numeric indicator and two more punctuation marks are formed with various combinations of dots 3, 4, 5, and 6. Like the numeric indicator, these signs serve as modifiers when placed before any of the other signs. Through the application of this principle, the various signs can function in multiple ways.
This illustration shows the formation of each six-dot cell and its simplest designated meaning. A universal Braille code for the English-speaking world was not adopted untilwhen representatives from agencies for the blind in Great Britain and the United States met in London and agreed upon a system known as Standard English Braille, grade 2.
In Anglo-American experts again met in London to further improve the system. A girl reading the Braille edition of a Harry Potter book in the library of a school for the blind. AP Images In addition to the literary Braille code, there are other codes utilizing the Braille cell but with other meanings assigned to each configuration.
The Nemeth Code of Braille Mathematics and Scientific Notation provides for Braille representation of the many special symbols used in advanced mathematical and technical material.
There are also special Braille codes or modifications for musical notationshorthandand, of course, many of the more common languages of the world.Simply browsing around on an industry leader’s blog for two minutes should give you plenty of fresh ideas for content. Visit the major industry websites.
Writing: Writing, form of human communication by means of a set of visible marks that are related, by convention, to some particular structural level of language. This definition highlights the fact that writing is in principle the representation of language rather than a direct representation of thought.
Topics You Could Write About.
We've organized the suggested topics into 11 broad categories, loosely based on some of the common ways of developing paragraphs and essays. But don't feel limited by these categories. You'll find that many of the topics can be adapted to suit almost any kind of writing assignment.
Prewriting is the first stage of the writing process, typically followed by drafting, revision, editing and publishing.. Prewriting can consist of a combination of outlining, diagramming, storyboarding, clustering (for a technique similar to clustering, see mindmapping.
If getting started is the hardest part of the writing process, close behind it (and closely related to it) may be the challenge of finding a good topic to write about.. Of course, sometimes an instructor will solve that problem for you by assigning a topic.
But at other times you'll have the opportunity to choose a topic . Nov 13, · Updated, March 2, | We published an updated version of this list, “ Prompts for Narrative and Personal Writing,” as well as a companion piece, “ Prompts for Argumentative Writing.” Every school day since we’ve asked students a question based .