Milgram study

He conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience.

Milgram study

This is a public service of the University of California. Social psychologist Stanley Milgram researched the effect of authority on obedience.

He concluded people obey either out of fear or out of a desire to appear cooperative--even when acting against their own better judgment and desires. Milgram recruited subjects for his experiments from various walks in life.

Stanley Milgram - Wikipedia

Respondents were told the experiment would study the effects of punishment on learning ability. They were offered a token cash award for participating.

Although respondents thought they had an equal chance of playing the role of a student or of a teacher, the process was rigged so all respondents ended up playing the teacher. The learner was an actor working as a cohort of the experimenter. In reality, the only electric shocks delivered in the experiment were single volt shock samples given to each teacher.

This was done to give teachers a feeling for the jolts they thought they would be discharging. Shock levels were labeled from 15 to volts. Besides the numerical scale, verbal anchors added to the frightful appearance of the instrument.

Beginning from the lower end, jolt levels were labeled: Severe Shock," and, past that, a simple but ghastly "XXX. Eventually, in desperation, the learner was to yell loudly and complain of heart pain. At some point the actor would refuse to answer any more questions.

Finally, at volts the actor would be totally silent-that is, if any of the teacher participants got so far without rebelling first.

Stanley Milgram (August 15, – December 20, ) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the s during his professorship at . Stanley Milgram (August 15, – December 20, ) was an American social psychologist, best known for his controversial experiment on obedience conducted in the s during his professorship at Yale. Milgram recruited subjects for his experiments from various walks in life. Respondents were told the experiment would study the effects of punishment on learning ability. They were offered a token cash award for participating.

Teachers were instructed to treat silence as an incorrect answer and apply the next shock level to the student. If at any point the innocent teacher hesitated to inflict the shocks, the experimenter would pressure him to proceed. Such demands would take the form of increasingly severe statements, such as "The experiment requires that you continue.

What percentage of teachers, if any, do you think went up to the maximum voltage of ? Results from the experiment. Some teachers refused to continue with the shocks early on, despite urging from the experimenter. This is the type of response Milgram expected as the norm. But Milgram was shocked to find those who questioned authority were in the minority.

Participants demonstrated a range of negative emotions about continuing. Some pleaded with the learner, asking the actor to answer questions carefully.

Others started to laugh nervously and act strangely in diverse ways. Some subjects appeared cold, hopeless, somber, or arrogant.In , Milgram put up a newspaper advertisement for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University.

He handpicked 40 male participants aged between 20 and 50, whose jobs ranged from skilled to unskilled professional.

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Milgram recruited subjects for his experiments from various walks in life. Respondents were told the experiment would study the effects of punishment on learning ability.

They were offered a token cash award for participating.

Milgram study

Milgram selected participants for his experiment by newspaper advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University. The procedure was that the participant was paired with another person and they drew lots to find out who would be the ‘learner’ and who would be the ‘teacher.’.

Whilst the Milgram experiment appeared to have no long term effects on the participants, it is essential that psychological studies do have strict guidelines; the Stanford Prison Experiment is an example of one such study that crossed the line, and actually caused measurable psychological distress to the participants.

References

The Stanley Milgram Experiment was created to explain some of the concentration camp-horrors of the World War 2, where Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavs and . The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram.

They measured the willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education, to obey an authority figure who instructed them to.

Milgram Experiment | Simply Psychology