Get Your Project Proposal Noticed written by: As you sit down to write your own document keep in mind that although some details will necessarily change to accommodate your particular project type, scopeand industry, the general structure is more or less the same for any kind of project proposal. Included in each section are also a few tips and examples to help you produce a proposal that is clear, accurate, and focused.
Conclusions and Recommendations Great Lakes policy development and implementation often occur in an institutionally complex environment.
Indeed, there are many levels of government and many key players in the policy arena that make it particularly challenging. To affect policy development and implementation requires building a strong consensus and mandate.
Building a strong consensus and mandate for a particular Great Lakes issue will require good science. Experience has shown that having good science as the foundation for Great Lakes policy development and implementation means less argument.
Less argument translates into a higher probability of success in the policy arena. From a Great Lakes policy-makers' perspective, good science is generally described as: Relevant a priority to Great Lake managers and policy-makers Current up-to-date information and knowledge ; Robust supported by a strong weight of evidence ; Recognizes limits sensitive to scientific uncertainty and knowledge gaps; understands limits of current knowledge and scientific understanding Understandable clearly communicated, in a concise fashion, and with aptness of thought ; and Accessible science is easily accessible via the Internet and other mechanisms.
Use of an ecosystem approach requires not only a strong scientific foundation, but a strong linkage between science and policy as well.
Although there are some very good examples of use of an ecosystem approach in the Great Lakes, much more can and should be done to operationalize use of an ecosystem approach and strengthen the science-policy linkage.
Although there is no single best way to implement an ecosystem approach and establish a strong, effective linkage between science and policy, all successful approaches follow an adaptive management framework.
Adaptive planning and management recognizes the uncertainties and imperfect knowledge of ecosystems. It strives for continuous improvement through an iterative decision-making process based on trial, monitoring, and feedback.
Put another way, an inclusive decision-making process is used to assess, set priorities, and take action in an iterative fashion for continuous improvement.
Any long-term effort to strengthen the science-policy linkage in the Great Lakes Basin must also be viewed as an iterative process for continuous improvement. Suggested actions and activities to strengthen the science-policy linkage can be generally grouped into the following categories: Clarify and reach agreement on priorities Plan cooperatively Share responsibilities for delivery of programs Share resources Build partnerships and cooperative relationships Integrate research, monitoring, and management Develop new approaches to science, policy, and management issues; and Communicate the value and benefits of a strong linkage amongst science, research, policy, and management Table 2.
Examples of suggested activities to help strengthen the science-policy linkage in the Great Lakes Basin. The suggested activities presented above are not comprehensive or perfect, but are intended to give practical suggestions to help strengthen the science-policy linkage and provide the necessary foundation for effective Great Lakes management.
The rate of change in environmental and resource issues, and programs, is accelerating. Therefore, decision-makers in research, science, policy, and management cannot be afraid to change.
All policy-makers recognize that sound and credible decision-making depends on good science, good databases, and effective science transfer. Sound science will be even more important in ecosystem-based, decision-making processes that require understanding of cause-and-effect relationships of persistent toxic substances, exotic species, climate change, changes in food web structure and function, and continued habitat loss and degradation.
In addition, sound science is a prerequisite to setting priorities and targeting greatest risks. Recommendations Many good suggestions and recommendations were made to strengthen the Great Lakes science-policy linkage throughout this two-year project. However, as noted above, strengthening the science-policy linkage in the Great Lakes Basin is a process that should follow an adaptive management framework to assess, set priorities, and take action in an iterative fashion for continuous improvement.
Based on an assessment of the project steering committee, there are a number of ongoing efforts to strengthen the science-policy linkage in the Great Lakes Basin; however, much more can and should be done to strengthen this linkage.
Recommended priorities no rank order implied for strengthening the science-policy linkage in the Great Lakes Basin include: This would place a high priority on outreach e. The strategic planning process would be collaborative and direct future project-related activities aimed at strengthening science-policy linkages throughout the Great Lakes Basin.
This strategic planning process would define long-term e. This information will enable IAGLR to adaptively manage the science-policy process as new issues, policy-makers, and elected officials emerge over time throughout the basin.
The evaluation should also include a follow-up survey of all stakeholder organizations to assess project outcomes, specifically the degree to which project activities have strengthened science-policy connections among Great Lakes stakeholder organizations Additional Pilot Projects - The aquatic invasive species pilot project was very well received.
Such pilot projects would produce scientific knowledge assessments on specific topics for policy-makers. Emphasis should be placed on effective, reliable, and timely translation of information and views between scientists and policy-makers. Special emphasis should be placed on enticing the right people e.
For example, a Four-Party Agreement U.A Short Guide to Writing Your Final Year Project Report Or MSc Dissertation February Abstract This guide is intended to help you produce a good final year project report or MSc dissertation.
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Authored by S. Joseph Levine, Michigan State University ([email protected]). A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point.
For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection, Dubliners, with information about Joyce's own complex. Final Final Year Project Report.
Computer Science Project.
Final Year Project Report. Final Year Project Report Format Batch Final Year Project (Final Report) Final Year Project Report. All this leads to the conclusion that this project was an overall success. This can be further seen in the attached fully functional application which 5/5(13).