The framework allows a business to identify and analyze the important forces that determine the profitability of an industry. It is these forces that determine how much competition will exist in a market and consequently the profitability and attractiveness of this market for a company. Through sound corporate strategies, a company will aim to shape these forces to its advantage to strengthen the organizations position in the industry. For the purpose of this model, industry attractiveness is the overall profitability potential of the industry.
Data Analysis Sampling strategies and research ethics Dissertations involve performing research on samples. The way that we choose a sample to investigate can raise a number of ethical issues that must be understood and overcome.
When thinking about the impact of sampling strategies on research ethics, you need to take into account: Each of these aspects of sampling strategies and research ethics are discussed in turn: Sampling techniques When sampling, you need to decide what units e.
Sampling techniques act as a guide to help you select these units. However, how units are selected varies considerably between probability sampling techniques and non-probability sampling techniques [see the articles, Probability sampling and Non-probability sampling to learn more about these types of sampling technique].
Moreover, there is also a lot of variation amongst non-probability sampling techniques, in particular. Probability sampling techniques require a list of the population from which you select units for your sample. This raises potential data protection and confidentiality issues because units in the list i.
Therefore, you need to check that you have the right to access the list in the first place. When using non-probability sampling, you need to ask yourself whether you are including or excluding units for theoretical or practical reasons.
In the case of purposive sampling, the choice of which units to include and exclude is theoretically-driven. In such cases, there are few ethical concerns.
However, where units are included or excluded for practical reasons, such as ease of access or personal preferences e.
For example, it is not uncommon when select units using convenience sampling that researchers? For example, maybe the researcher would avoid approaching certain groups e. Where this happens, it raises ethical issues because the picture being built through the research can be excessively narrow, and arguably, unethically narrow.
This highlights the importance of using theory to determine the creation of samples when using non-probability sampling techniques rather than practical reasons, whenever possible. Sample size Whether you are using a probability sampling or non-probability sampling technique to help you create your sample, you will need to decide how large your sample should be i.
Your sample size becomes an ethical issue for two reasons: Over-sized samples A sample is over-sized when there are more units e.
An over-sized sample is considered to be an ethical issue because it potentially exposes an excessive number of people or other units to your research. Let's look at where this may or may not be a problem: Not an ethical issue Imagine that you were interested in the career choices of students at your university, and you were only asking students to complete a questionnaire taking no more than 10 minutes, all an over-sized sample would have done was waste a little of the students' time.
Whilst you don't want to be wasting peoples' time, and should try and avoid doing so, this is not a major ethical issue. A potential ethical issue Imagine that you were interested in the effect of a carbohydrate free diet on the concentration levels of female university students in the classroom.
You know that carbohydrate free diets i.
|Original Research ARTICLE||Excerpts from Survival Statistics - an applied statistics book for graduate students.|
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|Importance of Using Regression Analysis||Appendix 3 — Online Tools to Assist in Survey Research Conducting Survey Research — An Overview Surveys are conducted to obtain data that can be used to assess trends and conditions, advance understanding, test theories, develop policy recommendations or business strategies, and much more.|
However, you have read some research showing that such diets can make people feel lethargic i. Therefore, you want to know whether this is affecting students?
You decide to conduct an experiment where you measure concentration levels amongst 40 female students that are not on any specific diet. First, you measure their concentration levels. Then, you ask 20 of the students to go on a carbohydrate free diet and whilst the remaining 20 continue with the normal food consumption.
After a period of time e. You find that the carbohydrate free diet did significantly impact on the concentration levels of the 20 students. So here comes the ethical issue: What if you could have come to the same conclusion with fewer students?
What if you only needed to ask 10 students to go on the carbohydrate free diet rather than 20? Would this have meant that the performance of 10 students would not have been negatively for a 14 day period as a result?
The important point is that you do not want to expose individuals to distress or harm unnecessarily. Under-sized samples A sample is under-sized when you are unable to achieve your goals i.
These units could be people, organisation, data, and so forth. The important point is that you fail to answer your research questions not because a potential answer did not exist, but because your sample size was too small for such an answer to be discovered or interpreted.
Let's look where this may or may not be a problem: Not an ethical issue Let's take the example of the career choices of students at your university.Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction There are many different strategies that research has shown are effective in literature-based instruction (Cooper, ).
These include scaffolding of instruction, modeling, cooperative learning, student choices, self-initiated reading and writing, using different modes of reading.
Apple’s generic strategy, based on Porter’s model, aligns with the company’s intensive growth strategies. In particular, the intensive growth strategy of product development is key to fulfilling this generic strategy and supporting Apple’s success. The 6 Core Purchasing Strategies.
Companies implement Purchasing strategies in order to make cost effective purchasing decisions from a group of efficient vendors who will deliver quality goods on time and at mutually agreeable terms. This chapter is only going to provide you with an introduction to what is called “Multiple • You use correlation analysis to find out if there is a statistically significant • You use linear regression analysis to make predictions based on the relationship that exists between two variables.
What Is The Purpose Of Using Regression Analysis How May It Be Used To Formulate Strategies Provide Examples Related To Strategy Formulation And Implementation.
After controlling for factors like industry, geography, and company size, we used regression analysis to calculate how much of the variance in decision outcomes 7 We asked respondents to assess outcomes along four dimensions: revenue, profitability, market share, and productivity.