Psychoanalytic theory[ edit ] A number of theorists have influenced the field of gender studies significantly, specifically in terms of psychoanalytic theory. Ettingerand Mark Blechner. Gender studied under the lens of each of these theorists looks somewhat different.
Common Themes and the Liberal-to-Radical Continuum Virtually all feminist thinking about rape shares several underlying themes. Feminist thought and activism have challenged the myth that rape is rare and exceptional, showing that it is in fact a common experience in the lives of girls and women.
It has now been amply confirmed by research: Of these women, Indeed, many women suffer multiple rapes in their lives: An accurate estimate of rape's frequency requires a clear understanding of rape itself and of the varied circumstances in which it occurs.
I am a black anti-feminist woman and my husband is a white man who has never been against feminism, or given feminism much thought. Last night we had an interesting conversation over dinner. Fathering is a Feminist Issue. and towards developing masculine identities that do not depend on competition, such as caring activities as more important to their identity as fathers. Feminism has particularly tried to escape the Freudian/Lacanian version of infant sexuality that is dominated by the power of the phallus and the father. Rather than completely revoking this theory, feminists have sought a space in which feminine identity might develop separately.
Often contributing to the underestimation of rape's frequency is a narrow and stereotypical conception of what rape is: While such rapes do occur, the great majority of rapes are committed by a man or men known to the victim: For this reason, again contrary to stereotype, most rapes are intraracial.
In the study of over 16, Americans mentioned above, Remarkably few assailants are punished: Perhaps the most basic challenge that feminists have posed to traditional views of rape lies in the recognition of rape as a crime against the victim herself.
A raped woman or girl was less valuable as property, and penalties for rape often involved fines or other compensation paid to her husband or father Burgess-Jackson The marital rape exemption in law, which survived in the U.
A further corollary of this view was that women who were not the private property of any individual man—for instance, prostitutes—were unrapeable, or at least that no one important was harmed by their rape Dworkin—, Burgess-Jackson, Feminists' recognition of the severity and pervasiveness of rape's harms, and of how infrequently victims receive justice, has inspired decades of activism for social and legal change.
Feminists in many U. In addition to pressing for changes in law and in police and prosecutorial practices, feminists have founded and staffed rape crisis centers and hotlines to support victims, whether or not they choose to pursue charges against their attackers.
Feminist views of rape can be understood as arrayed on a continuum from liberal to radical. More radical views, in contrast, contend that rape must be recognized and understood as an important pillar of patriarchy.
Johnson defines patriarchy as a social system in which men disproportionately occupy positions of power and authority, central norms and values are associated with manhood and masculinity which in turn are defined in terms of dominance and controland men are the primary focus of attention in most cultural spaces Radical feminists see rape as arising from patriarchal constructions of gender and sexuality within the context of broader systems of male power, and emphasize the harm that rape does to women as a group.
In addition, radical feminist approaches to rape often share one or more of the following three features.
First, they regard the deprivation of women's bodily sovereignty—in particular, male control over the sexual and reproductive uses of women's bodies—as a central defining element of patriarchy Whisnant As a result, they analyze rape as one of multiple forms of men's sexual violence and exploitation, looking at their interconnections and how they work in concert to maintain and reinforce women's oppression.
Third, the focus on group-based oppression has also led many radical feminist thinkers to examine the role of rape itself, and of ideologies about rape, in creating and reproducing not only patriarchy but multiple systems of domination, including racism and colonialism.
Feminists are committed to ensuring that women's and girls' experiences of sexual violation are taken seriously as such, that the harm they suffer therein is recognized, and that those who inflict that harm are held accountable.
Achieving these goals has often involved arguing that certain kinds of encounters that have previously not been socially or legally recognized as rape should be so recognized—thus, challenging overly restrictive ideas often encoded in law about what counts as rape Burgess-Jackson; Sanday; Bevacqua Obvious examples include the abolition of marital-rape exemptions and the recognition of date and acquaintance rape.The aim of this study is to investigate the forms, significance and effects of feminist identity development among elite young women in a Chinese university environment.
Based on fieldwork conducted over 11 months in a Chinese public university with .
Why Feminism Is In My Best Interest As a Man in Blog, Leadership, Men & Masculinities, Sexual Violence Prevention, Social Justice Education This post was originally posted on Feminists in Student Affairs on July 29, The following is a talk I presented at the Motherhood Initiative for Research and Community Involvement Conference this past October in Toronto, ON on feminism, patriarchy, and mothering.
Feminism in identity seeks to understand the separation of sexual and gender identities, explaining how men and women become separated and different. Rose. Jaqueline Rose uses Lacan to argue that: Sexual identity is acquired in the Oedipal crisis, rather than being innate.
Even my oldest brother born in London is so rooted in his Kenyan identity he has more than once erroneously said he was born in Nairobi. Against this backdrop, my independent African feminist mother decided to gift me my father’s tribe.
She is Samia. My brothers, late father and I, are all Luo. HISTORY AND THEORY OF FEMINISM The term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women.