Definition[ edit ] Kates defines environmental hazard as "the threat potential posed to man or nature by events originating in, or transmitted by, the natural or built environment".
Angela Ivask 1, angela. As antimicrobial materials such as silver and copper are inherently toxic, the application of nano-enabled antimicrobial surface coatings AMCs in healthcare settings may cause harm in addition to benefits.
Indeed, in parallel to cutting down the spread of potentially infectious microbes, AMCs may induce eco toxicological hazard and antimicrobial resistance.
This session will cover briefly all these aspects: Ivaskintroduction of the adverse environmental effects A. Mantecca and importance of internationally coordinated research and networks F. More information on this COST network is available in the joint paper of the authors: A potential and promising weapon against bacterial growth and possibly the development of multi-drug resistant bacteria has been found in AntiMicrobial nano -Coatings AMC.
In coatings fortified with an active ingredient, the ingredient is responsible for the elimination of the microorganisms. Nowadays, a lot of these coatings are commercially available and establish a high reduction of bacterial loads on surfaces, when studied in standardized laboratory Anthropogenic hazard.
Field studies to test the efficacy of AMC in healthcare settings are scarce. This is one of the main reasons for so far limited use of AMCs in Anthropogenic hazard.
Zuyd University is currently performing field studies in Zuyderland Hospital, to assess the efficacy of 2 different antimicrobial TiO2 coatings in patient rooms. Both coatings have proven efficacy in controlled lab conditions using the intimate contact test ISO The aim of the current study is to explore the efficacy of these coatings in a living lab situation by assessing bacterial load and diversity.
Moreover, experience built up in these living lab studies is valuable to extend field studies through the AMiCI network. Special concern is spreading of the nosocomial infections typically derived from increased exposure to pathogenic bacterial in hospitals or healthcare units.
The development and use of antimicrobial coatings AMCs is a promising industrially up-scalable research field to mitigate spreading of infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistance AMR.
|Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas development||One of the experts is weather channel founder, John Coleman, who warns that huge fortunes are being made by man-made climate change proponents such as Al Gore. In a recent interview with Climate Depot, Coleman said:|
As the scientific community has questioned the human and environmental safety of nanosilver, the identification of safer AMCs is urgently needed applying safe-by-design approach. Textiles are among the materials with the highest demand for antimicrobial functional coating, due to their ubiquitous use in healthcare settings e.
The growing need for antibacterial textiles has resulted in revolutionary progress in the textile industry, leading to new technologies and products able to improve the antibacterial efficacy and to concomitantly reduce the environmental and health hazard, which finally has the potential to open new market and business opportunities for the companies.
Pilot-scaled industrial plants were developed and the refinement of the technologies is ongoing to match the market demand. Antimicrobial coatings AMCs have been suggested as a promising solution against the spread of microbes and related infections in public and healthcare sectors.
Although certain AMCs affect microbial cells via topology or anti-fouling properties, most often AMCs are based on antimicrobial active substances — traditional antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, enzymes, quaternary ammonium compounds QACsor nanoparticles e.
Due to the release of these chemicals from AMCs and rapid genetic exchange and mutations in microbies there are concerns that increasing use of AMCs may induce the appearance of new or spread of already existing AMR microbes.
The fact that traditional antibiotics, even if released from AMCs only at low concentrations may cause the spreading of AMR microbes via horizontal gene transfer, is well-recognised. However, microbes may develop resistance also against antimicrobial peptides and QACs e.
Also various genes granting microbial resistance to metals have been discovered and there is growing evidence of co-resistance between e.
Thus, by aiming to control microbial infections by AMCs one has to take care not to open the door for resistant microbes instead.
The problem expands as microbial resistance to antibiotics increases and can be alleviated by application of antimicrobial coatings AMCs in health-care settings. To this end, nanoparticles NPse. Unfortunately, most AMCs are also toxic to humans, animals and to the environment at large. Therefore, AMCs can be a double-edge sward: Thus, the risk assessment of AMCs over the entire life cycle into different environmental compartments is needed for the sustainable application of AMCs.
Currently there are some data available for hazard evaluation of AgNPs — the antimicrobial nanomaterial that has been most efficiently studied — but not yet enough to conduct a detailed risk-benefit assessment.
The data gaps are even more severe for other nano antimicrobials that have remarkably less available information.Anthropogenic hazards may adversely affect humans, other organisms and biomes and ecosystems. The frequency and severity of hazards are key elements in some risk analysis methodologies.
Hazards may also be described in relation to the impact that they have. A . Even though it has never been validated by objective testing, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has been widely used for almost 50 years by governments and industry in applications with lives and property hanging in the balance, such as deciding safety criteria for nuclear power plants, making official national hazard maps, developing building code requirements, and determining.
Anthropogenic impact in the sea and marine pollution. by Stanislav Patin, translation by Elena Cascio based on "Environmental Impact of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry". Below you will find a brief introduction to the problem of anthropogenic impact in the sea and marine pollution.
A staggering 30, scientists have come forward confirming that man-made climate change is a hoax perpetuated by the elite in order to mak. Anthropogenic hazard Anthropogenic hazards or human-made hazards can result in the form of a human-made disaster. In this case, anthropogenic means threats having an element of human intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of a human-made system.
Waste discharges during the offshore oil and gas activity. by Stanislav Patin, translation by Elena Cascio based on "Environmental Impact of the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry".