All About Theories for Communication. The Standpoint Theory Definition A view point or an attitude towards the particular issue from their own perspective is called Standpoint.
They are a result of incomplete or distored information accepted as fact without question" 8. A stereotype is simply a widely held belief that an individual is a member of a certain group based on charcteristics.
Due to the process of overgeneralization within social perception, stereotyping leads to a great deal of inaccuracy in social perception. Sex, race, age, sexual orentation, religion and physical ability are various catagories which exist in stereotyping.
The most prevalent and controversial forms are sex and race. The Williams and Best gender study from found that within 30 different countries, males were typically characterized as adventurous, powerful, domineering and independent.
Females, on the other hand, were characterized as sentimental, submissive and superstitious 5. Racial studies have found that descriptions such as Jews are shrewd and ambitious, African-Americans have special musical and athletic ability and Germans are methodical and efficent, are commonly used to label these ethnic groups.
Slowly, society has been making a slight transition away from stereotyping. Unfortunately it is a difficult process, especially since we rely on second-hand sources for our information for the majority of our knowledge.
The main outlet of second-hand information is the mass media 7. As a result of depending largely on the second-hand source of mass media, mass media in turn plays a major role in determining the content of our culture.
Stereotyping is a product of culture, therefore, mass media have a strong influence in supporting and tearing down stereotypical characteristics.
So why do Stereotypes persist? Three key factors 1. As audience members we are bombarded with much more information than we can process. Our tendency is to reduce complexity to simplicity.
We trade-off for simplification, which can lead to inaccuracy and we are often unaware of this deduction 2. Stereotypes are results of selectivity in social perception: We tend to see what we expect to see, and we have a tendency to twist and distort the characteristics of others until it fits our stereotype of that particular group 2.
This is the most influential factor in stereotyping.
Our perceptions are highly subjective, and many people subscribe to derogatory descriptions of ethnic groups.The action-based theories of perception, reviewed in this entry, challenge the Input-Output Picture.
They maintain that perception can also depend in a noninstrumental or constitutive way on action (or, more generally, on capacities for object-directed motor control). The theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women Three steps of Social Roles Theory 1) Biological and social factors, a division of labor between the sexes has emerged over time, both at home and in work setting.
Chapter 4 – Individual Perception, Judgment, and Attribution 54 EXERCISES Inference Exercise This exercise is an example of how people's values, needs, experience, and perceptual tendencies. Perception Errors. Name: Onkar Sawant. PTMBA Div B.
Roll No: In philosophy, psychology, and science, perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. May 14, · Entitativity and Group Perception Prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination refer to attitudes, beliefs and behavior towards other people based on their association with a particular social group.
In studying these aspects of social behavior, the focus is most commonly on race, ethnicity, religion or gender. a. particular carrier of that stereotype, this charge need not always trigger the corresponding negative affect. Stereotyping is, I believe, much more common than.